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Exploratory Testing is not “Experienced-Based” Testing (James Bach’s Blog)

On December 9, 2011, in Syndicated, by Association for Software Testing
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Prabhat Nayak is yet another sapient tester recently hired by the rising Indian testing powerhouse, Moolya. Speaking of the ISTQB syllabus, he writes:

One such disagreement of mine is they have put “Exploratory Testing” on purely experienced based testing. James, correct me if I have got ET wrong (and I am always ready to be corrected if I have misunderstood something), a novice tester who has got great cognizance and sapience and can explore things better, can think of different ways the product may fail to perform per requirement can always do a great job in ET than a 5 years experienced tester who has only learned to execute a set of test cases. That is probably one of the beauties of ET. There is of course, always an advantage of having some experience but that alone doesn’t suffice ET to be put under experienced based testing.

You are quite correct Prabhat. Thank you for pointing this out.

The shadowy cabal known as the ISTQB insulates itself from debate and criticism. They make their decisions in secret (under NDA, if you can believe it!) and they don’t invite my opinion, nor anyone’s opinion who has made a dedicated study of exploratory testing. That alone would be a good reason to dismiss whatever they do or claim.

But this case is an especially sad example of incompetent analysis. Let me break it down:

What does “experience-based” mean?

Usually when people in the technical world speak of something as “x-based” they generally mean that it is “organized according to a model of x” or perhaps “dominated by a consideration of x.” The “x”, whatever it is, plays a special role in the method compared to its role in some other “normal” or “typical” method.

What is a normal or typical method of software testing? I’m not aware the the ISTQB explicitly takes a position on that. But by calling ET an experience-based technique, they imply that no other test technique involves the application of experience to a comparable degree. If they have intended that implication– that would be a claim both remarkable and absurd. Why should any test technique not benefit from experience? Do they think that a novice tester and an experienced tester would choose the exact same tests when practicing other test techniques? Do they think there is no value to experience except when using ET? What research have they done to substantiate this opinion? I bet none.

If they have not intended this implication, then by calling ET experience-based it seems to me they are merely making impressive sounds for the sake of it. They might as well have called ET “breathing-based” on the theory that testers will have to breathe while testing, too.

Ah, but maybe there is another interpretation. They may have called ET “experienced-based” not to imply that ET is any more experience-based than other techniques, but rather as a warning that expresses their belief that the ONLY way ET can be valuable is through the personal heroism and mastery of the individual tester. In other words, what they meant to say was that ET is “personal excellence-based” testing, rather than testing whose value derives from an explicit algorithm that is objective and independent of the tester himself.

I suspect that what’s really going on, here: They think the other techniques are concrete and scientific, whereas ET is somehow mystical and perhaps based on the same sort of dodgy magic that you find in Narnia or MiddleEarth. They say “experience-based” to refer to a dark and scary forest that some enter but none ever return therefrom… They say “experienced-based” because they have no understanding of any other basis that ET can possibly have!

Why would it be difficult for Factory School testing thinkers (of which ISTQB is a product) to understand the basis of ET?

It’s difficult for them because Factory School people, by the force of their creed, seek to minimize the role of humanness in any technical activity. They are radical mechanizers. They are looking for algorithms instead of heuristics. They want to focus on artifacts, not thoughts or feelings or activities. They need to deny the role and value of tacit knowledge and skill. Their theory of learning was state of the art in the 18th century: memorization and mimicry. Then, when they encounter ET, they look for something to memorize or mimic, and find nothing.

Those of us who study ET, when we try to share it, talk a lot about cognitive science, epistemology, and modern learning theory. We talk about the importance of practice. This sounds to the Factory Schoolers like incomprehensible new agey incantations in High Elvish. They suspect we are being deliberately obscure just to keep our clients confused and intimidated.

This is also what makes them want to call ET a technique, rather than an approach. I have, since the late nineties, characterized exploratory testing as an approach that applies to any technique. It is a mindset and set of behaviors that occur, to some degree, in ALL testing. To say “Let’s use ET, now” is technically as incoherent as saying “Let’s use knowledge, now.” You are always using knowledge, to some degree, in any work that you do. “Knowledge” is not a technique that you sometimes deploy. However, knowledge plays more a role in some situations and less a role in others. Knowledge is not always and equally applicable, nor is it uniformly applied even when applicable.

For the Factory Schoolers to admit that ET is endemic to all testing, to some degree, would force them to admit that their ignorance of ET is largely ignorance of testing itself! They cannot allow themselves to do that. They have invested everything in the claim that they understand testing.  No, we will have to wait until those very proud and desperately self-inflated personalities retire, dry up, and blow away. The salvation of our craft will come from recruiting smart young testers into a better way of thinking about things like ET. The brain drain will eventually cause the Factory School culture to sink into the sea like a very boring version of Altantis.

Bottom Line: Most testing benefits from experience, but no special experience is necessary to do ET

Exploratory testing is not a technique, so it doesn’t need to be categorized alongside techniques. However, a more appropriate way to characterize ET, if you want to charactize it in some way, is to call it self-managed and self-structured (as opposed to externally managed and externally structured). It is testing wherein the design part of the process and the execution part of the process are parallel and interactive.

You know what else is self-managed and self-structured? Learning how to walk and talk. Does anyone suggest that only “experienced people” should be allowed to do that?

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